This is the time of the year when landscape and lawn care workers must cope with deer flies. Landowners may ask for help in controlling these pests. The following is more information.
Female deer flies are vicious, painful biters. They feed on the blood of cattle, horses, mules, hogs, dogs, deer, other warmblooded animals, and even humans. These flies cut through the skin with their knife-like mouthparts and suck the blood for several minutes. When they fly away, a drop or two of blood usually exudes from the wound, permitting secondary feeding sites for other nuisance insects. Biting deer flies frequently attack humans along summer beaches, near streams, and at the edges of moist, wooded areas. Some people, when bitten, suffer severe lesions, high fever, and even general disability. Symptoms are allergic reactions to hemorrhagic saliva poured into the wound to prevent clotting while the fly is feeding. A person can become increasingly sensitive to repeated bites.
Deer flies are slightly larger than house flies, and mostly yellow or black with darker stripes on the abdomen and dark markings or patterns on the wings. They have brilliant green or golden eyes with zigzag stripes. Deer flies frequently attack humans, whereas horse flies usually attack livestock.
Eggs are dark, shiny, spindle shaped and in layered masses (tiers) of a few to several hundred on vegetation in or hanging over the water. Fully grown larvae are cylindrical, tapering toward both ends, whitish or yellowish gray, banded with black or brown and a fleshy elevated ring on each body segment. They are tough skinned (leathery), up to two inches long and are often used as fish bait.
Life Cycle and Habits
Eggs are deposited in masses usually on vegetation or other objects over water near the larval habitat. After eggs hatch in 5 to 12 days, small larvae drop down and burrow into moist, wet soil found in marshes, stream banks, and bottoms of lakes and ponds. They may drop into rapidly flowing streams or burrow into dry soil. Larvae feed on organic debris, other insects, tiny crustaceans, snails, earthworms, and aquatic or semiaquatic organisms. Larvae overwinter in muddy soils, maturing in late spring. Pupation occurs in dry soil. The larval stage is about one year or up to two to three years for some species. The pupal period may range from 6 to 12 days depending on temperature and species. Adults are strong fliers, and appear in early summer with females feeding on blood while males feed on flower nectar, honeydew, plant juices, and other liquids. The life cycle may require from two months to two or three years, depending on the species and geographical region. Some species must obtain a blood meal before the development of each batch of eggs. Adults of most species are seen for only about one month, but often there is an overlapping succession of species during the season. Humans are seriously annoyed by deer flies around woodland areas with streams.
No satisfactory methods have been developed for control of deer flies. It is impractical in most regions to eliminate the breeding areas. Draining marshes and wet meadows where flies develop is of the greatest value, but should be done in such a way as to preserve the desirable wildlife of such areas, if possible. Fortunately, the season for deer flies is rather short, usually four to five weeks in late May and June. If the problem lasts six to eight weeks, there may be several species present or that species lasts longer than most. Humans are better able to protect themselves than wild or domestic animals by swatting flies away and by using repellents.
The greatest deer fly activity occurs on warm, sunny days when there is little or no wind. A slight drop in temperature or a sudden breeze reduces biting attacks. Deer flies seem to be attracted to moving objects and dark shapes. They attack humans especially around the face and neck areas (four to five deer flies attack at one time).
Extension agents have field tested TRED-NOT DEER FLY PATCHES as a non-chemical control method. Some reported good results of these odorless, non-chemical, adhesive patches. The patches are three inches wide by six inches long, and are worn on the back of a cap to trap and hold biting deer flies. Patches worked best when moving.
Persons hiking, picnicking, camping or involved in outdoor activity should protect themselves with repellents. There are also nylon head nets that keep insects away from the neck and face yet are suitable for clear vision and reinforced. Bug-Off Jackets make it unnecessary to use aerosol cans or messy, oily bottles of rub-on repellents. A handy mesh jacket slips on easily over regular outdoor clothing and is very effective when a strong repellent is applied. Store the jacket in a sealed plastic bag.
Gloves are useful, as are tightly woven, long-sleeved shirts and long pants. Be sure that the shirt cuffs button tightly. Light colors, such as army suntans, seem less attractive than dark blue jeans.
Area repellents with citronella or naphthalene are a good way to repel deer flies and mosquitoes in or near a patio, yard, tent, or cabin. Providing daytime shelter for humans and animals is important as deer flies do not appear to bite greatly at night.
Short-term protection can be demonstrated, but the frequency of treatment to provide protection becomes prohibitive in insecticide cost and labor. Sprays containing pyrethroid insecticides may give repellency protection for one to three days. However, flies may reinfest from surrounding areas within two to four days. They are fast, strong fliers. Treat shrubbery and vegetation where flies might rest around stagnant pools, marshy areas, ponds, and shore lines in residential or recreational areas. Do not treat water directly, since it may be toxic to fish and wildlife. Repeat as necessary only according to label directions and safety precautions. Resmethrin has provided good control of deer flies when applied with a mist blower into the wooded areas around cultivated fields. Also, aerial ULV applications of malathion concentrate have reduced populations. Box, canopy, or sticky traps may reduce some adult populations.
Information from the Ohio State Factsheet "Horse and Deer Flies" HYG-2115-98 by William F. Lyon.